The history of printing presses
The invention and development of the printing press played an important role in the spread of human civilization and culture. 
In 1439, Gutenberg, Germany, produced the wooden letterpress, a vertical screw hand-operated machine that, though simple in structure, has been in use for 300 years. In 1812, koenig, Germany, made the first round embossing press. In 1847, howie invented the rotary press in the United States. In 1900, a six-color rotary press was made. In 1904, American rubel invented the offset printing press.
Prior to the 1950s, traditional letterpress printing technology dominated the printing industry. But lead alloy letterpress technology has the disadvantages of high labor intensity, long production cycle and environmental pollution. Since the 1960s, with the characteristics of short cycle and high productivity, lithographic offset printing technology began to rise and develop, and lead alloy letterpress printing was gradually replaced by lithographic offset printing. Soft relief printing, hole printing, electrostatic printing, inkjet printing, etc., has also been developed in packaging printing, advertising printing.
The world printing machinery has made great progress since the 1980s. Over the past 20 years, the development of printing machinery has gone through three stages:
The first stage is the beginning of 1980 s to the early 90 s, this phase is the heyday of offset printing process development. This period of sheet-fed offset printing speed for the largest 10000 printed/hour. The preset time of a four-color printing machine is usually about 2 hours before printing. The automatic control of the printing press mainly focuses on automatic paper binding, automatic paper collection, automatic cleaning, automatic detection of ink color, automatic adjustment of ink volume and the registration remote control. In addition to the monochrome, double color conversion, this period also has almost every sheet-fed offset press manufacturers in four-color machine manufacturing capabilities, most manufacturers are able to make paper flip agencies, double-sided printing.
The second stage was from the early 1990s to the end of the 20th century. In the 1990s, with the single-page offset printing press as the symbol, the international printing machinery design and manufacturing level has made a big step forward. Compared with the first stage of the model, a new generation of models to further improve the speed of the, by the 10000 printed/hour to 15000 / hour, prepress preset adjustment time also by the first phase of the 2 hours shorten for 15 minutes. The automation level and production efficiency of the machines have also been greatly improved.
Since entering the 21st century, printing machinery has entered the third stage of development. Sheet-fed offset press some models can reach 17000-18000 / hour, but manufacturers don't hankers after the printer printing speed increases, the largest but through the application of information technology, further shorten the prepress preparation time and replace live a time to pursue a higher production efficiency.
In the aspect of printing machinery automation, networking, production integration, digital workflow, and management information system (MIS) links have become the focus of development. Heidelberg CP2000 of automatic control system in addition to whole machine from paper, paper and paper, ink, water, changing edition, alignment, cleaning, drying, glazing coating, powder spraying, and paper and so on each work link to preset control and fault diagnosis, also has the realization of on-line printing enterprise all production processes, online prepress image processing data (CIP3 / or CIP4 PPF/JDF data), and other functions. In the new century, most offset printing press manufacturers have developed the corresponding DI digital printing press.
In addition, in order to adapt to the demand for high-end color printing, color group 10 color even multicolor group of double-sided printing, additional online post-press processing function for all kinds of sheet-fed offset press (including small offset press, DI direct plate maker and large offset press) development trend, and the technology mature gradually, the type printing machine has started to use originally belong to part of a web press market.